Carlos Duraes de Carvalho Shells
Collection
Pussos - Alvaiázere - Portugal
Triviidae
Updated 22OCT2013
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The shells of the family Triviidae, belong to the super-family Velutinoidea.
They have a silky surface with transverse ridges or fine granules. They are usually white or
pink, sometimes blotched but never banded.

This family consists of two sub-families: Eratoinae and Triviinae.
Both feed on small ascidians (soft animals with a tough leathery outer skin, common name
Sea Squirt, caused by their habit of squirting a jet of water, when you stand on or near them
during low tide).
The difference is that Trivia makes a hole on the ascidian to get the soft parts inside and
Erato looks for the aperture of the ascidian and thrusts its proboscis inside it to feed.
The ascidians are also used to breed. The Trivia embeds small egg-capsules inside the
ascidian, each one containing numerous eggs. The eggs develop into echinospira larvae; a
veliger larvae, adapted to a long pelagic life.

Eratoinae is similar to Marginellidae, it doesn’t have the strong folds on the columella and has
a short blunt spire.

On the Triviinae the aperture is narrow and straight. It has lots of small teeth on both lips,
produced as spiral ribs which encircle the dorsum and sides and extend on to columella. The
spire is covered or very low.

The indentation at the centre of the dorsal shells surface is crucial to identify the species. The
number of ribs which can easily be checked on the outer lip is also important.
In some species the ribs are continuous across the dorsum. Others are interrupted on the
middle of the dorsum, leaving a space in the centre, which may be smooth or grooved to a
greater or lesser extent.

Bibliography used:

Sea Snails of Southern Africa - Sea Snails of Southern Africa – Richard Kilburn & Elizabeth
Rippey
WORMS - World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/
The Seashells of New South Wales
Des Beechey
Senior Fellow, Australian Museum
http://seashellsofnsw.org.au/General/Pages/Book_index.htm
Cate, C. N. 1979. A review of the Triviidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Memoirs of the San
Diego Society of Natural History 10:1–126
Bouchet, P.; Rocroi, J.-P. (Ed.) (2005). Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families.
Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology
Gosliner, T. M. and W. R. Liltved. 1987. Further studies on the morphology of the Triviidae
(Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) with emphasis on species from southern Africa. Zoological
Journal of the Linnean Society
Gosliner, T. M. and W. R. Liltved. 1982. Comparative morphology of three South African
Triviidae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) with the description of a new species. Zoological
Journal of the Linnean Society
“Triviidae”Integrated Taxonomic Information System //www.itis.
gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=73170
http://www.manandmollusc.net
Rudman, W.B., 2000 (May 25) Ascidians (Sea squirts, Tunicates). [In] Sea Slug Forum.
Australian Museum, Sydney. Available from http://www.seaslugforum.net/factsheet/ascidian
Eddie Hardy
http://www.gastropods.com
Revision of the Genus Trivellona Iredale, 1931- Dirk Fehse & Josef Grego- 2009

Acknowledgements
Many thanks to Luis Tavora, known Portuguese collector and Josef Grego also a Triviidae expert, for
their help on the discussion about the respective Genus and identification.
I know they consider Eratoidae and Triviidae as separate  families, but here I have considered the
same as WORMS: The family Triviidae and two Sub-families: Eratoinae and Triviinae.
Photo
PLATES
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NomSubFamilia   Genus    Species    Synonyms    NomPais     MaxSize     NrOfSpecimens         NrID       PHOTOS

ERATOINAE        Erato        cypraeola galica †                                 Slovakia                7,4        5       4058          D  B
ERATOINAE        Erato        voluta (Montagu, G., 1803)                Portugal                   7,5        1      5535        
   D  B
ERATOINAE        Erato (Eratopsis) prayensis Rochebrune, 1881 Cabo Verde              4        1       7043          D  B
ERATOINAE        Eratoena        sulcifera (Sowerby I, 1832)                Mozambique        5         1       7849         D  B
ERATOINAE        Eratoena        sulcifera capensis (Cate, C.N., 1977)   South Africa     4        3       6177         
 D  B
ERATOINAE        Hesperato        maugeriae (J. E. Gray, 1832)                USA             5,12        1       5766          D  B
ERATOINAE        Hesperato        scabriuscula (Sowerby, G.B. II, 1832) Panama       8,41        1       5872          D  B
ERATOINAE        Hesperato        scabriuscula (Sowerby, G.B. II, 1832)  Galapagos    10        1       5978          D  B
ERATOINAE        Proterato        callosa (Adams & Reeve, 1850)                Japan            5        1       7848         D  B
ERATOINAE        Proterato        hindley (Ladd, H.S., 1977)                Philippines          7,5        1       6178         D  B
ERATOINAE        Proterato        pura (Kuroda & Habe, 1971)                      Taiwan          5        1       7847         D  B
ERATOINAE        Proterato (Cypraeerato) gallinacea (Hinds, R.B., 1844) Philippines       5    1       6180         D  B
ERATOINAE        Proterato (Cypraeerato) gemma (Bavay, A.R.J.B., 1917) Philippines   3,26  1      6338          D  B
ERATOINAE        Proterato (Sulcerato) lachryma (Sowerby, G.B. II, 1832) Australia  5,28    1          6337         D  B
ERATOINAE        Proterato (Sulcerato) pagoboi (Cossignani, T. & V. Cossig., 1997) PI 5,61  1       6340          D  B
ERATOINAE        Proterato (Sulcerato) recondita (Melvill & Standen, 1903  South Africa      3      8487          D  B
ERATOINAE        Proterato (Sulcerato) stalagmia Cate, C.N., 1975   Philippines        4,1        1       6339         
 D  B
TRIVIINAE        Austrotrivia        bayeri Fehse, D., 2002            French Polinesia        3,8        1      6844          D  B
TRIVIINAE        Cleotrivia        atomaria (Dall, W.H., 1902)                Galapagos          6,16        1       6232         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Cleotrivia        coletteae (Fehse, 1999)                Reunion                   2,8        1       7479          D  B
TRIVIINAE        Cleotrivia        pilula (Kiener, 1843)                Australia                         3,7        1       7831          D  B
TRIVIINAE        Dolichupis        producta (Gaskoin, J.S., 1836)     Philippines         11,29        1       6542          D  B
TRIVIINAE        Niveria        nix (Schilder, F.A., 1922)                Puerto Rico                 9,9        1       5869          D  B
TRIVIINAE        Niveria        problematica (Schilder, 1931)=
             = Trivia levantina Smriglio, Mariottini & Buzzuro,   Turkey                      7,8        1       5307        
 D  B
TRIVIINAE        Niveria        quadripunctata (Gray, J.E., 1827                Colombia         7,7        1       5972         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Niveria        quadripunctata (Gray, J.E., 1827) (1)                Aruba      7,88        1       7418         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Niveria        suffusa (Gray, J.E., 1827)                Brasil                           8,4        4        3781        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Niveria        suffusa (Gray, J.E., 1827) (var)          Cayman Island        6,8         1        5870        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Niveria (Ellatrivia)    memorata (Finlay, H.J., 1927)     Tasmania        13,5         1       6102         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Niveria (Ellatrivia)    merces merces (Iredale, T., 1924)  Australia       13         1       6122         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Niveria (Niveria)   maltbiana (Schwengel & McGinty, 1942)Brasil         7         1       7044         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Purpurcapsula        corinneae (Shaw, 1909)                Tuamotu            4,6        1       7441         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Purpurcapsula        exigua (Gray, J.E., 1831)                   Egipt               4,14     1       6771       
  D  B
TRIVIINAE        Purpurcapsula        rubromaculosa (Fehse, D. & J Grego, 2002) Egipt  3,87   1       6843         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Purpurcapsula        zzyzyxia (Cate, C.N., 1979)       Mozambique        4,86        1        6547        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Pusula   californiana (Gray, 1827)  = californica Sowerby, 1832  USA 9,63       1       5867         D  B
T
RIVIINAE        Pusula        liltvedi (Gofás, S., 1984)                                   Angola        8,39         1      7411        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Pusula        pedicula (Linnaeus, C., 1758)                                 Brasil        12       6        874        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Pusula        pedicula (Linnaeus, C., 1758) (1)                     Aruba        10,61        1      7409        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Pusula        radians (Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de, 1810)                    USA        13,4         1     5767         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Pusula        sanguinea Sowerby, G.B. I in Sowerby, G.B. II, 1832) Panama  9,3  1     6195         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Pusula        solandri (Sowerby, G.B. I in Sowerby, G.B. II, 1832) USA  18,6         2     5785         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Pusula        solandri (SowerbyI in Sowerby II, 1832)var   Panama        19,5        1     5826         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivellona        abyssicola (Schepman, 1909)                Philippines        6,1        1     7440         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivellona        catei Fehse, D. & J Grego, 2004          Philippines        10,7        1     6518         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivellona        eos (Roberts, 1913)             Philippines                           25         1     7846         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivellona speciosa (Kuroda, T. & C.N. Cate in Cate, 1979) Philippines   6        2     5975       
  D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivellona   vesicularis (Gaskoin J.S., 1836)   South Africa                       11,2    1     8486         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivellona        suduirauti (Lorenz, 1996)                         Philippines        12        1    7473        
 D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        arctica (Pulteney, 1799)                                          France        11,4      8      883         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        arctica (Pulteney, 1799)(Var)                                 España        10,5      1      886         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        arctica (Pulteney, 1799)(Var2)                                    Italia        7,2        1      889         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        arctica (Pulteney, 1799)(var3)                United Kingdom         12        6    2042         D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        candidula (Gaskoin, J.S., 1836)=
                               =Trivia bitou Pallary, 1912                                   Portugal        6,42         2     6233        
 D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        candidula (Gaskoin, J.S., 1836)var=
                                = Trivia bitou Pallary, 1912                                        Spain        7,2          1     6175       
 D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        europaea (Montagu, G., 1808)                                 France        9        3      5552        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        hispania Cate, C.N., 1979                                      España        7,8         1     6490        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        hispania Cate, C.N., 1979 Var                              Portugal        8,9        1     6234        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        monacha (Costa, E.M. da, 1778)                        Portugal      13,44        8       890        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        monacha (Costa, E.M. da, 1778)(Var)                     France        11        9        891       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        monacha (Costa, E.M. da, 1778)(var2)   United Kingdom        10         5     2041       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        monacha (Costa, E.M. da, 1778)(var3)                Portugal        13         4     2382       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        multilirata (Sowerby, G.B. II, 1870)                        Turkey        6,6          1    6196        D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        multilirata (Sowerby, G.B. II, 1870)var                Albania        10,5         1     6174       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        napolina (Kiener, 1843)                                          S.Tomé        5,3         1    7475       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        pacifica (Sowerby, 1832)                                        Panama        10         1     5825       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        pacifica (Sowerby, 1832) (1)                                 Mexico        9,38         1    7410       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        pullicina Locard, E.A.A., 1892 = Trivia pulex               Italia        7,4       6      882       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        pullicina Locard, E.A.A., 1892 var = Trivia pulex   France        7,4        5    6559       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        suavis (Schilder, F.A., 1931)                               South Africa        9       4      902       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivia        trivia sp.                                                          Mozambique        6,9         1    6845       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        aperta (Swainson, W.A., 1822)                 South Africa        19,3         1    6173       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        calveriola (Kilburn, R.N., 1980)                  South Africa        20,2       1     881       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        calveriola (Kilburn, R.N., 1980) (Var)            South Africa        21       1     892       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        costata (Gmelin, J.F., 1791)                        South Africa        16,4       1     880      
 D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        khanya (Liltved, W.R., 1986)                  South Africa        17,17          1    6543      D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        magnidentata Liltved, W.R., 1986              South Africa        16,4       1      875      D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        magnidentata Liltved, W.R., 1986 (1)         South Africa        16,5      1      885       D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        millardi (Cate, C.N., 1979)                            South Africa        18,2      1      879      D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        multicostata (Liltved, W.R., 1986)                 South Africa        9,5      1      908      D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        multicostata (Liltved, W.R., 1986) (Pink)    South Africa        13,1      2      876      D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        neglecta (Schilder, F.A., 1930) var                South Africa        10      1    2186      D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        ovulata (Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de, 1810)         South Africa        17,2       1      877      D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        phalacra Schilder, F.A., 1930                South Africa        16,58          1     6536     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        sanctispiritus Shikama, T., 1974                South Africa        17,2       1       884     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Triviella        verhoefi (Gosliner, T.M. & W.R. Liltved, 1982)South Africa 15,5      1       878     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        akroterium Cate, C.N., 1979                        Malaysia        11,8        2     5974     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        bocki Schilder, F.A. & M. Schilder, 1944            Indonesia   8       2     5976     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        corrugata (Pease, 1868)                                       Egipt        4,3       1     7476     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        edgari (Shaw, H.O.N., 1909)                  Philippines        5,41          1     6489     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        edgari (Shaw, H.O.N., 1909) (1)                      Tuamotu        3,3       1     7442     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        ginae Fehse, D. & J Grego, 2002                Philippines        5        1     7110     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        hordacea (Kiener, L.C., 1843)                Philippines        4,99        1      6335    D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        hyalina Schilder, F.A., 1933                   Philippines        4,91         1      6336    D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        insularum Schilder, 1944                         Philippines        6,2         1      7832    D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        keehiensis Cate, C.N., 1979                    Philippines        6,22       1      6334     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        natalensis Schilder, 1932                                   Egipt        7,7        1      7474     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        oryza (Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de, 1810)                Australia        11        3      3955     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        pellucidula (Gaskoin, J.S., 1846)               South Africa        6       2       6176    D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        poppei Fehse, D., 1999                            Mozambique        12       4      5973     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        shawi Schilder, 1933                                          Tuamotu        6       1     7439     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        spioinsula Cate, C.N., 1979                      Philippines        10,5       1     5977     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        triticum Schilder, F.A., 1932                                 Israel        8,6       2      887      D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        turneri Schilder, 1932                                            Egipt        6,6      1     7477     D  B
TRIVIINAE        Trivirostra        vayssierei Cate, 1979                                       Reunion        3,8      1     7478     D  B